Colombia

Hevea Brasiliensis

Genus: 
Hevea
Species: 
Brasiliensis
Trade Name: 
Rubber Tree
Other Names: 
Rubberwood
CITES Information: 
Not listed
Endangered Status: 
Not Evaluated
Countries Where Found: 

Native: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela Exotic: Brunei, Cambodia, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Liberia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam

Overview: 

Common Name: Rubber Tree

Also known as: Rubberwood

H. brasiliensis, often called Rubber Tree, is native to the Amazon region of South America, including Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela. It has also been introduced for commercial production throughout Southeast Asia and Western Africa. It is generally found in low-altitude moist forests, wetlands, and disturbed areas. It grows quickly, reaching 30 to 40 meters and can live for up to 100 years. It produces a latex sap used as a raw material for rubber-based products. Its dense wood also provides an important source of lumber for the manufacturing of furniture.

Associated Risks: 

Associated risks H. Brasiliensis is not listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). This species is abundant and not subject to international or domestic trade bans or restrictions.

Country - Natural Range: 
Bolivia
Colombia
Peru
Venezuela
Uses: 
Cabinetmaking
Doors
Furniture
Interior joinery
Windows

Swietenia mahagoni

Genus: 
Swietenia
Species: 
mahagoni
Trade Name: 
Caribbean mahogany
Other Names: 
acajou, acajou de Cuba, acajou de Saint Domingue, acajou de St. Domingue, acajou des Antilles, aguano, antillen mahogani, bay, mahogany, caoba, caoba de santo domingo, caoba dominicana, caobilla, chiculte, cobano, Cuban mahogany, curlet mahogany, Dominican mahogany, echites mahagoni, gateado, Jamaica mahogany, Kuba mahogany, madiera, mahagoni, mahog, mahogany, mahogany du pays, mahogany petites feuilles, mahok, mahoni, mongo, orura, small-leaf mahogany, West Indian mahogany, West Indies mahogany
CITES Information: 
Listed, Appendix II
Endangered Status: 
Endangered
Countries Where Found: 

Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Venezuela

Notes: 
CITES listing applies to logs, lumber and veneer from any country of origin.
Overview: 

Common Name: West Indies Mahogany

Also known as: American mahogany, Cuban mahogany, Spanish mahogany, small-leaved mahogany, Acajou, Mahogani de saint-dominique, mahogany petites feuilles, caoba Espanola, coabilla

S. mahagoni, often called West Indies mahogany, is a tropical tree native to the Caribbean islands, United States (Florida), and Venezuela. This fast-growing tree can grow up to 75ft in height and 2ft in trunk diameter, though few stands of this size can be found today. S. mahagoni wood is durable and highly resistant to decay and insect attack. Hence, it has been used to make high-quality furniture, cabinets, joinery, boats, and carvings. In some places, it has also been used as fuel and for medicinal purposes.

Because genuine mahogany (the three species of the Swietenia genus) has been highly valued, populations of S. mahogany have been diminished significantly due to extensive exploitation of the species. Erosion of the species’ genetic diversity is also affecting the survival of the species. Its IUCN Red List status is “endangered.”

Associated Risks: 

S. humilis is listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), a listing that applies to logs, sawnwood, and veneer sheets.

Country - Natural Range: 
Anguilla
Antigua/Barbuda
Bahamas
Barbados
Cayman Islands
Colombia
Cuba
Dominican Republic
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Jamaica
Martinique
Montserrat
Peru
Trinidad And Tobago
Venezuela
Uses: 
Boat building
Boat interiors
Carving
Exterior joinery
Furniture
Interior joinery
Musical instruments
Paneling
Veneer

Tabebuia serratifolia

Genus: 
Tabebuia
Species: 
serratifolia
Trade Name: 
Ipe
Other Names: 
groenhart, arewood, bastard lignum-vitae, bethabara, greenheart, May-flower, noib wood, trumpet flower tree, ipe, ipe tobaco, pau d’Arco, bethabara
CITES Information: 
Not listed
Endangered Status: 
Not Evaluated
Countries Where Found: 

Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru

Overview: 

Common Name: Yellow poui, ipe

Also known as: groenhart, arewood, bastard lignum-vitae, bethabara, greenheart, May-flower, noib wood, trumpet flower tree, ipe, ipe tobaco, pau d’Arco, bethabara

T. serratifolia, commonly known as yellow poui or ipe, is a large deciduous tree native to evergreen lowland forests in tropical Central and South America. The tree can grow up to 37m in height and 3m in trunk diameter. During the dry season, the leaves fall off and are replaced with yellow flowers that remain until the rainy season sets in.

Like other Tabebuia species, the yellow poui is used for medicinal purposes. The olive-brown wood is highly resistant to decay and is strong, dense and durable. Timber is used for bridges, house posts, decking, construction, turning, factoring flooring, tool handles, cabinet work, and veneer. This species has not been evaluated by the IUCN Red List.

Associated Risks: 

Tabebuia serratifolia is not listed on any appendix of the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). It has not been evaluated for inclusion on the IUCN Red List.

Country - Natural Range: 
Bolivia
Brazil
Colombia
Ecuador
Guyana
Mexico
Paraguay
Peru
Trinidad And Tobago
Uses: 
Decking
Fence posts
Heavy construction
Railway tracks

Swietenia macrophylla

Genus: 
Swietenia
Species: 
macrophylla
Other Names: 
bigleaf mahogany, acajou, acajou Amerique, acajou d’Amerique, acajou du Honduras, Adoa, aguano, American mahogany, Americkaans mahonie, Amerikanns mahonie, ara putange, araputanga, bastard lime, bay-mahogany, baywood, belize mahogany, caòba, Honduras mahogany, mara, mogno
CITES Information: 
Listed, Appendix II
Endangered Status: 
Vulnerable
Countries Where Found: 

Natural

Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Venezuela

Planted

Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Fiji, Philippines

Country - Planted: 
Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Fiji, Philippines
Plantation Information: 
Harvested on plantations.
Notes: 
CITES listing applies to logs, lumber, plywood and veneer originating in Latin America and the Caribbean with the exception of Brazil and Nicaragua. Export bans exist in Brazil and Nicaragua.
Overview: 

Common Name: Bigleaf mahogany

Also known as: acajou, acajou Amerique, acajou d’Amerique, acajou du Honduras, Adoa, aguano, American mahogany, Americkaans mahonie, Amerikanns mahonie, ara putange, araputanga, bastard lime, bay-mahogany, baywood, belize mahogany, caòba, Honduras mahogany, mara, mogno

S. macrophylla, often called caoba, is a very large timber-producing tree native to large areas of the Americas. It is the national tree of both Belize and the Dominican Republic. It is the most commercially important mahogany tree and one of only three species that produces true mahogany. Mahogany timber is well-known and valuable for its straight grain, reddish-brown tone, resistance to rot, and tonal quality. It is used in fine furniture, boat construction, and musical instruments, in particular the backs, sides and necks of acoustic guitars and the shells of drums. Large-scale commercial use of the timber over many centuries has made S. macrophylla rare in its northern natural range. Its IUCN Red List status is “vulnerable.” It is grown on plantations in Southeast Asia.

Associated Risks: 

S. macrophylla is listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), a listing that applies to logs, lumber, plywood and veneer originating in Latin America and the Caribbean with the exception of Brazil and Nicaragua. National export bans on S. macrophylla exist in Brazil and Nicaragua.

Major Buyers & Markets: 

The United States, Dominican Republic, Argentina, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Finland, South Africa, and Saudi Arabia are importers of S. macrophylla.

Country - Natural Range: 
Belize
Bolivia
Brazil
Colombia
Costa Rica
Ecuador
El Salvador
French Guiana
Guatemala
Guyana
Honduras
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
Peru
Venezuela
Uses: 
Boat building
Boat interiors
Carving
Exterior joinery
Furniture
Interior joinery
Joinery
Musical instruments
Paneling
Veneer

Guaiacum spp.

Genus: 
Guaiacum
Species: 
spp.
Trade Name: 
Lignum vitae
Other Names: 
auyacan, greenheart, palo santo
CITES Information: 
Listed, Appendix II
Endangered Status: 
Endangered
Countries Where Found: 

Bahamas, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, United States, Venezuela

Notes: 
species, and to all parts and derivatives from any country of origin except finished products packaged and ready for retail trade.
Overview: 

Common Name: lignum vitae

Also known as: auyacan, palo santo, greenheart

Guaiacum is a genus of six species of trees native to Central America and the Caribbean. The genus includes G. officinale and G. sanctum, both small (7-10 m in height), slow-growing trees that produce the highly valued wood known as lignum vitae (“wood of life”). It is the densest and hardest wood known. Because the wood is self-oiling, lignum vitae was a popular choice for steamship bearings and for use in equipment like pulleys; composite materials eventually replaced it in marine construction and heavy machinery, and now the wood is mostly used in carvings.

Guaiacum’s woods and resins were also valuable for medicinal purposes, used for conditions ranging from gout to skin infections.

The trees are culturally symbolic in the Caribbean; G. sanctum is the national tree of the Bahamas, while the flower of G. officinale is the national flower of Jamaica.

Associated Risks: 

All species of Guaiacum are listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), a listing that applies to all parts and derivatives except seeds and pollen; and finished products packaged and ready for retail trade.

Country - Natural Range: 
Anguilla
Antigua/Barbuda
Bahamas
Barbados
Colombia
Cuba
Dominican Republic
Haiti
Jamaica
United States
Venezuela
Uses: 
Carving
Marine equipment
Sculpture

Hymenaea courbaril

Genus: 
Hymenaea
Species: 
courbaril
Trade Name: 
Jatoba
Other Names: 
Algarrobo, Brazilian cherry, Brazilian copal, guapinol, kawanari South American cherry, South American locust, West Indian locust
CITES Information: 
Not listed
Endangered Status: 
Not Evaluated
Countries Where Found: 

Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guyana, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru

Overview: 

Common Name: jatoba

Also known as: algarrobo, Brazilian cherry, Brazilian copal, guapinol, kawanari South American cherry, South American locust, West Indian locust

C. odorata is a very large tree - it can grow to 40-50 meters tall - native to large areas of the tropical Americas. The timber of large, mature trees is considered very valuable; in fact, C. odorata is one of the world’s most important commercial timber species. The wood of C. odorata timber is distinctive for its fragrance, and is best known as the wood commonly used in traditional cigar boxes. Its fragrant, insect-repelling properties have also made it a very popular choice for wardrobes, closets and other clothing-storage uses. Large-scale commercial exploitation of C. odorata over the last 200 years has placed significant pressure on the species in its natural range; its IUCN Red List status is “vulnerable.”

Associated Risks: 

H. courbaril is not listed on any appendix to the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). It has not been evaluated by the IUCN.

Country - Natural Range: 
Belize
Bolivia
Brazil
Colombia
Costa Rica
Guyana
Mexico
Nicaragua
Peru
Uses: 
Boat building
Cabinetmaking
Construction
Flooring
Furniture
Sports goods
Tool handles
Trim
Turnery
Veneer

Dipteryx odorata

Genus: 
Dipteryx
Species: 
odorata
Trade Name: 
Cumaru
Other Names: 
kumaru, tonka, Brazilian teak, gaiac de Cayenne, almendrillo, ebo, shihuahuaco amarillo, charapilla, sarrapia
CITES Information: 
Not listed
Endangered Status: 
Not Evaluated
Countries Where Found: 

Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela

Overview: 

Common Name: Cumaru

Also known as: kumaru, tonka, Brazilian teak, gaiac de Cayenne, almendrillo, ebo, shihuahuaco amarillo, charapilla, sarrapia

D. odorata, commonly known as cumaru, is a hardwood tree found in northern South America and parts of Central America. Its most commonly used name, cumaru, comes from indigenous people in the region.

Seeds of D. odorata are known as tonka beans, also from local languages, and are sometimes used as a food additive and substitute for vanilla. The seeds are also valuable in the perfume industry. Coumarin, a compound found in the seeds, was initially used as the precursor to a number of important anticoagulant drugs, including warfarin.

D. odorata timber is yellow-brown or red-brown, heavy, hard, and dense. It is suitable for a number of applications, including flooring, bridge building, and ship decking.

Associated Risks: 

D. odorata is not subject to CITES listings or, at time of research, national export bans.

Country - Natural Range: 
Brazil
Colombia
Costa Rica
Guyana
Honduras
Jamaica
Mexico
Panama
Venezuela
Uses: 
Bridge construction
Cladding
Decking
Flooring
Turnery

Dipteryx panamensis Costa Rica

Genus: 
Dipteryx
Species: 
panamensis Costa Rica
Trade Name: 
Almendro
Other Names: 
Almendro, almendra, almendro de montaña, amans, choiba, eboe, îbu, iqua, Indian almond, sarrapia, tonca, tonka bean, yapo
CITES Information: 
Listed, Appendix III
Endangered Status: 
Not Evaluated
Countries Where Found: 

Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama

Associated Risks: 

D. panamensis Costa Rica is listed on Appendix III of the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), a listing that applies to all parts and derivatives, including manufactured and finished products from any country of origin.

Country - Natural Range: 
Colombia
Costa Rica
Nicaragua
Panama
Uses: 
Bridge construction
Flooring
Marine construction
Railway tracks

Cedrela odorata

Genus: 
Cedrela
Species: 
odorata
Trade Name: 
Spanish cedar
Other Names: 
Spanish cedar, acajou rouge, akuyari, atoreb, Barbados cedar, Brazilian cedar, British Guiana cedar, British Honduras cedar, cedar, cèdra acajou, cèdre des barbaies, cèdre rouge, cedrela, cedrela wood, cedro, cedro chino, cedro colorado, cedro hembra, cedro macho, cedro obsuro, cedro real, cedro red, cedro rojo, Central American cedar, chujte, cigar-box cedar, cigarbox cedar, Colorado cedro, Cuban cedar, epi, Hondouras cedar, icte, Jamaican cedar, Kalantas, Kapere, Koperi, Kurama, Kurana, Mexican cedar, Nicaraguan cedar, parank, paranka, red cedar, rojas cedar, rosas cedar, South American cedar, Tabasco cedar, tiocuahuitl, Trinidad cedar, Wesindische zedar, West Indian cedar
CITES Information: 
Listed, Appendix III
Endangered Status: 
Vulnerable
Countries Where Found: 

Natural

Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela

Plantation Information: 
Harvested on plantations.
Notes: 
CITES listing applies to logs, lumber and veneer from any country of origin.
Overview: 

Common Name: Spanish cedar

Also known as: acajou rouge, akuyari, atoreb, Barbados cedar, Brazilian cedar, British Guiana cedar, British Honduras cedar, cedar, cèdra acajou, cèdre des barbaies, cèdre rouge, cedrela, cedrela wood, cedro, cedro chino, cedro colorado, cedro hembra, cedro macho, cedro obsuro, cedro real, cedro red, cedro rojo, Central American cedar, chujte, cigar-box cedar, cigarbox cedar, Colorado cedro, Cuban cedar, epi, Hondouras cedar, icte, Jamaican cedar, Kalantas, Kapere, Koperi, Kurama, Kurana, Mexican cedar, Nicaraguan cedar, parank, paranka, red cedar, rojas cedar, rosas cedar, South American cedar, Tabasco cedar, tiocuahuitl, Trinidad cedar, Wesindische zedar, West Indian cedar

C. odorata is a very large tree - it can grow to 40-50 meters tall - native to large areas of the tropical Americas. The timber of large, mature trees is considered very valuable; in fact, C. odorata is one of the world’s most important commercial timber species. The wood of C. odorata timber is distinctive for its fragrance, and is best known as the wood commonly used in traditional cigar boxes. Its fragrant, insect-repelling properties have also made it a very popular choice for wardrobes, closets and other clothing-storage uses. Large-scale commercial exploitation of C. odorata over the last 200 years has placed significant pressure on the species in its natural range; its IUCN Red List status is “vulnerable.”

Associated Risks: 

C. odorata is listed on Appendix III of the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), a listing that applies to logs, sawn wood and veneer sheets originating in Brazil and Bolivia. In addition, Colombia, Guatemala, and Peru have listed their national populations.

Major Buyers & Markets: 

The United States is a major buyer of C. odorata timber.

Country - Natural Range: 
Antigua/Barbuda
Argentina
Barbados
Belize
Bolivia
Brazil
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
El Salvador
French Guiana
Guatemala
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Jamaica
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
Peru
Suriname
Venezuela
Uses: 
Construction
Furniture
Interior joinery
Shipbuilding
Veneer

Caryocar costaricense

Genus: 
Caryocar
Species: 
costaricense
Trade Name: 
Ajo
Other Names: 
Ajo, ajillo, aji, almendrillo, almendro, almendro de bajo, almendron, cagui, firme, genenè, manu, maqui-maqui cagui, pequia, pequia brava, pete rana do terra firme, petè, pete-rana, plomillo, rana do terra, swari
CITES Information: 
Listed, Appendix II
Endangered Status: 
Vulnerable
Countries Where Found: 

Natural

Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela

Notes: 
CITES listing applies to all parts and derivatives, including manufactured and finished products from any country of origin.
Overview: 

Common Name: aji

Also known as: ajillo, ajo, manu, plomillo, almendrillo, almendro, almendro de bajo, almendron, cagui, firme, genene, manu, maqui-maqui, cagui, pequia, pequia brava, pete rana do terra firme, pete’, pete-rana, rana do terra

C. costaricense is native to Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, and Venezuela and occurs in lowland evergreen rainforest. Aji is found mainly in protected areas in Costa Rica and in the Darien and San Blas regions of Panama.

C. costaricense is commonly used for flooring, furniture, construction, plywood, joinery, railroad ties, and vehicle parts. The main threat to the species is habitat loss. Its IUCN Red List status is “vulnerable.” The tree is closely related to, and may be confused with, C. amygdaliforme.

Associated Risks: 

C. costaricense is listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), a listing that applies to all parts and derivatives with specified exemptions.

Country - Natural Range: 
Colombia
Costa Rica
Panama
Venezuela
Uses: 
Bridge construction
Railway tracks
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